NOTE: Check to see if the study type is at the top or in the title.
If so, skip to questions 3a & 3b.
1. Does it have Method and Results sections?
a) If not, the article is secondary research (typically a review).
b) If it does have Method and Results sections, continue to step 2.
2. In the Method section, does it talk about a literature search strategy?
a) If you answered yes, it is a systematic review or meta-analysis.
b) If you answered no, and that section describes a research study
(research participants, an intervention, etc.),
it is original research. Continue to step 3 to determine its type.
STEP 3: Now, let's determine what type of original research this is.
3a. In the Method section, is the study described as an interview, observation, or questionnaire? Does the study involve looking into self-reported beliefs, thoughts, etc.?
a) If you answered yes, it’s a qualitative study.
b) If you answered no, see 3b.
3b. In the Method section, does the study describe the use of already-existing data (for example, reviewing patient admissions from the past 3 months)?
a) If you answered yes, it’s a retrospective study.
b) If you answered no, see 3c.
3c. In the Method or Results sections/areas, does it mention using quantitative analyses or statistical tests (e.g., ANOVA, t-test, p values)?
EXAMPLE ARTICLE EXCERPT
a) If you answered yes, it’s a quantitative study.
b) If you answered no, it’s qualitative.
BONUS. Are 3a AND 3c both true? In other words, does the study use BOTH quantitative and qualitative methods?
If so, it's a mixed methods study.